London, Marylebone Gardens
Marylebone Gardens, the main competition to Vauxhall after Ranelagh, was located next to the Rose of Normandy Tavern (in the area bounded today by Marylebone High Street, Marylebone Road, Weymouth Street and Harley Street) and began as a bowling green and gaming house. The fact that Dick Turpin visited in the 1720s may well be reflected in the fact that Gay used it as a haunt of his highwayman Macheath in the Beggar's Opera (1728). This reflects the early tone of the place and, even after 1738 when the new proprietor of the tavern, Samuel Arnold, improved things " introducing a sixpence entrance fee, shelters, music and fireworks and increasing its size to eight acres" it never entirely shook off its early reputation and became notorious for gambling and card sharping. It closed in 1778.
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